Melissa george smoking

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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Although it is widely acknowledged among adult smokers that increases in smoking are often precipitated by stressful events, far less attention has been given to smoking during times of stress among youth. To address this gap by drawing attention to the social utility of smoking in contexts associated with stress among college students. In addition, 40 brief interviews with smokers were conducted during final examination.

Interviews focused on a range of issues including current smoking behaviour and reasons for smoking. As part of the interview, students were given a deck of cards that listed a range of reasons for smoking. Those who selected cards that indicated smoking when stressed were asked to explain the reasons why they did so. A review of qualitative responses reveals that smoking served multiple functions during times of stress for college students.

Cigarettes are a consumption event that facilitates a brief social interaction during study times when students feel isolated from their friends. It has been suggested that a better understanding of the social context of smoking may help enhance tobacco control research and practice. This article highlights major findings of qualitative research on smoking in contexts associated with stress among college students. It is well established in the general population that increases in smoking are often precipitated by stressful events.

Three major issues guided the research: 1 to explore the extent to which students use smoking as a multifunctional tool for stress management; 2 to determine whether students use smoking as an idiom of distress and a means of showing empathy when a friend is under stress; and 3 to provide details on the complex of motivations that lead students to smoke during examination time. The paper draws on data from a longitudinal study of college students —3 funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Tobacco Etiology Research Network.

The study was conducted at Melissa george smoking large midwestern university, where college freshmen were followed through the academic year to explore patterns of tobacco uptake and trajectories of use. Survey responses were used to identify informants for Melissa george smoking qualitative component of the study. Preliminary data analyses in month 4 of the study provided insights into the range of smoking behaviour in the sample.

We randomly selected 30 students for interviews and 24 agreed to participate. Students were given a deck of 25 cards, with a reason for smoking listed on each card eg, because I was drinking alcohol, to catch up with friends, as a study break, to collect my thoughts, to relieve stress. They were then asked to talk about their selection and the types of situations that led them to smoke more or less.

Students who discussed smoking when stressed were asked for a further explanation for when they did so. A total of participants were screened and the first 40 who reported smoking were interviewed. Students were asked about changes in smoking during the weeks of the final examinations, reasons for changes and the contexts in which Melissa george smoking smoking occurred. A card exercise similar to the one described above was also used. A review of students' responses highlights multiple functions served by smoking, including that smoking: 1 helped clear one's mind when shifting from one subject to another; 2 served as an aid in alleviating anticipated stress; 3 helped to refocus one's thoughts during a study session, facilitating greater concentration; and 4 served as a reward to celebrate the completion of a study session or an examination.

Examples from the narrative data may help elucidate the multiple functions of smoking to reduce stress in context. Steve, an engineering student who smoked 1—2 cigarettes a day, enjoyed smoking while walking from the residence hall to the library, where he did most of his studying.

Smoking helped him relax and transition from the stressful events of the day to the serious concentration and focus he needed for his studies. He also enjoyed smoking when returning to the residence hall as a way to transition to his living space. For Steve, smoking was mostly a solitary behaviour. As he explained. When I'm headed off to class, if I know I'm going to be stressed out, I try to beat myself to it, and calm myself down. Knowing that I'm going to be annoyed, I have a cigarette which makes me feel better.

Students described a variety of ways in which cigarettes helped them study. For Emily, smoking is a productive time, shared with friends, that helps relieve the stress of excessive concentration. The break is circumscribed, lasting as long as the cigarette.

She then returns to her studying with a renewed focus. For other students, like Brian, a smoking break helps puzzle through an issue allowing him to work more efficiently through a problem he is facing in his schoolwork.

It just helps if you sit down and smoke a cigarette and think about it, it's a good way to help you reflect. Although the smoking break is ostensibly for stress relief for both students, cigarettes serve different purposes and meanings for each of them.

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For Stacy, having a cigarette was useful to help modulate or even out emotionally charged stressful states. That's the first thing I want to do. If my boyfriend and I get in a fight, then I'll run outside to smoke. It makes me feel better. Several informants noted that they became concerned when they saw a friend smoking too much, as it alled that something was wrong, that the person was troubled or worried.

This evaluation was based on how much their friend smoked and also the manner and circumstances under which they smoked.

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Chain smoking, inhaling or exhaling deeply, and clutching the cigarette Melissa george smoking one's hand were all mentioned as conveying a message of distress. I just chain smoked the entire way. I was trying to prove a point to her while I was doing it. Notably, some informants reported that at times they smoked not because of their own stress, but because a friend was stressed.

This could play out in two divergent ways. Empathetic smoking can be thought of as Melissa george smoking sharing of presence on a somatic and emotional level, which may involve engaging in a similar rhythm with the person who is stressed. It may or may not involve talking—in fact, smoking a cigarette together may replace the need to talk about a problem.

We found this to be the case particularly among men who found it difficult to articulate feelings. During such times, he smoked to keep his friend company, which he thought would make him feel better. In such cases, which were more common among women, the stress that one's friend was experiencing actually became their own. Kate, for example, explained how she often experienced the stress of her close friends.

If someone has hurt my friend's feelings or done something intentionally to my friend to upset her, it makes me mad, so usually I'll have a cigarette to cope with that. Social smoking among college students is a recognised and growing concern among tobacco control practitioners. To date, relatively few qualitative studies have been conducted among this population, and little is known about the social contexts that contribute to increased smoking during times of stress. This nuanced of college smoking alerts researchers to be aware of the possibility for conflating data on increased smoking during times of stress with one's actual experience of stress.

Using a social context framework forces the researcher to look beyond individual behaviour to study group interaction. This approach holds promise for a greater understanding of smoking among youth. Indeed, the most common reason cited for smoking during the examination was to be social—that is, to friends for a study break. While some students took study breaks alone, other students described taking a break with friends outside the residence hall or the library.

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Students reported that they took a smoking break not because they were stressed out or needed a break, but because a friend was stressed out and needed to take a break. Studying long hours with friends nearby meant more invitations and opportunities for study breaks involving cigarettes. By going out and smoking together, students experienced a feeling of solidarity and camaraderie with others—a comforting feeling that one was not alone in their misery. Other students explained that they had poor study skills, so taking frequent breaks was useful.

Cigarettes provided an opportunity for a short break, not a long break as would be needed if they went out for food. Smoking with friends during the week of the final examinations was useful because during this time there were no classes or parties to attend, so smoking breaks provided a good opportunity—in fact, one of the only opportunities—to socialise with friends and catch up on what was going on with others. Students explained that increased free time because of having no more classes, coupled with the monotony of studying, left them feeling bored. An invitation to smoke a cigarette creates an opportunity to interact that is stress reducing.

A second point highlighted is that smoking serves as an idiom of distress as well as an opportunity to bond socially with another who is feeling stressed. Engaging in empathetic smoking may be as a somatic mode of attention, as a way of establishing a sense of connectedness through the shared act of smoking, especially when smoking takes on a rhythmic quality. A third point Melissa george smoking from a close examination of why more smoking occurs during the week of the final examination. To understand smoking among college students, it is not enough to measure the correlation between stressful events, Melissa george smoking as final examinations, and changes in levels of smoking among students.

It is all too easy to assume that such correlations are indicative of a stressful event. An important methodological lesson is to be learnt from a reassessment of smoking during finals. Future studies need to consider the social functions of smoking at times when students experience stressful social relations. Competing interests: None declared. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List Tob Control v. Tob Control. Author information Article notes Copyright and information Disclaimer. Received Jan 1; Accepted Mar Copyright notice.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Although it is widely acknowledged among adult smokers that increases in smoking are often precipitated by stressful events, far less attention has been given to smoking during times of stress among youth. Aims To address this gap by drawing attention to the social utility of smoking in contexts associated with stress among college students. Measurements Interviews focused on a range of issues including current smoking behaviour and reasons for smoking. As he explained, When I'm headed off to class, if I know I'm going to be stressed out, I try to beat myself to it, and calm myself down.

Footnotes Competing interests: None declared. References 1. Monitoring the future: National survey on drug use. Vol College students and adults ages 19— Rigotti N, Lee J. Wechsler H. US college students' use of tobacco products: of a national survey, J Am Med Assoc — Drug Alcohol Depend 81 1—9. Social smoking among US college students. Pediatrics — Tob Control 15 59— Smoking, stress and negative affect: correlation, causation and context across stages Melissa george smoking smoking.

Psychol Bull — College students' smoking behavior, perceived stress, and coping styles. J Drug Educ 26 — Addict Behav 31 — J Adolesc Res 21 — Edwards G. The alcohol dependence syndrome: a concept as stimulus to enquiry. Br J Addict 81 — Stress and smoking among college students. Taking play seriously: low level smoking among college students. Culture Med Psychiatry 31 1— Nichter M. Smoking: What's culture got to do with it? Addiction 98 — Support Center Support Center. External link. Please review our privacy policy.

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